Introduction Brunei

Introduction Brunei
Background: The Sultanate of Brunei’s influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.

Geography Brunei
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area – comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries: total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use: arable land: 0.57%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 98.67% (2001)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Environment – current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment – international agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
People Brunei
Population: 372,361 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.6% (male 54,342/female 52,084)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 134,908/female 119,814)
65 years and over: 3% (male 5,301/female 5,912) (2005 est.)
Median age: total: 27.04 years
male: 27.63 years
female: 26.4 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.9% (2005 est.)
Birth rate: 19.01 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate: 3.42 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.8 years
male: 72.36 years
female: 77.36 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12% Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.4% (2002)
Government Brunei
Country name: conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
Government type: constitutional sultanate
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular – daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note – 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari’a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Suffrage: none
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note – the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note – the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note – there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch: Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005
elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Political parties and leaders: National Development Party (NDP) [Yassin AFFENDI]; National Unity Party of Brunei (PPKB) [leader NA]; People’s Awareness Party (PAKAR) [leader NA] note: parties are small and inactive (2005)
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, C, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293
Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
Economy Brunei
Economy – overview: This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei’s leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $6.842 billion (2003 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 3.2% (2003 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $23,600 (2003 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 5%
industry: 45%
services: 50% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 158,000
note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (2002 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.2% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.9 billion
expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (2003 est.)
Agriculture – products: rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2002 est.)
Electricity – production: 2.458 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity – consumption: 2.286 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2002)
Oil – production: 204,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil – consumption: 13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil – exports: 199,000 bbl/day (2003)
Oil – imports: NA
Oil – proved reserves: 1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas – production: 10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 315 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Exports: $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports – commodities: crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports – partners: Japan 38.1%, South Korea 14%, Australia 11.2%, US 8.6%, Thailand 7.9%, Indonesia 5.9%, China 4.5% (2004)
Imports: $5.2 billion c.i.f. (2003)
Imports – commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports – partners: Singapore 32.7%, Malaysia 21.2%, UK 8.3%, Japan 7.2% (2004)
Debt – external: $0
Economic aid – recipient: NA
Currency (code): Bruneian dollar (BND)
Currency code: BND
Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars per US dollar – 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Brunei
Telephones – main lines in use: 90,000 (2002)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 137,000 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code – 673; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 329,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: 201,900 (1998)
Internet country code: .bn
Internet hosts: 6,409 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 35,000 (2002)
Transportation Brunei
Highways: total: 2,525 km
paved: 2,525 km
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Waterways: 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2004)
Pipelines: gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Lumut, Muara, Seria
Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
by type: liquefied gas 8
foreign-owned: 8 (United Kingdom 8) (2005)
Airports: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Heliports: 3 (2004 est.)
Military Brunei
Military branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 103,885 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: approx. 85,045 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males: 3,478 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures – dollar figure: $290.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 5.1% (2004)
Transnational Issues Brunei
Disputes – international: in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia’s land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 “Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea” has eased tensons in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding “code of conduct” desired by several of the disputants
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

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