Introduction Lithuania

Background: Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Geography Lithuania
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area – comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline: 99 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m
Natural resources: peat, arable land
Land use: arable land: 45.22%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 53.87% (2001)
Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment – current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment – international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography – note: fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
People Lithuania
Population: 3,596,617 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.1% (male 297,271/female 282,269)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 1,206,731/female 1,264,359)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 186,979/female 359,008) (2005 est.)
Median age: total: 37.83 years
male: 35.25 years
female: 40.46 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.3% (2005 est.)
Birth rate: 8.62 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate: 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.89 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.97 years
male: 68.94 years
female: 79.28 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.19 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,300 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
Government Lithuania
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Vilnius
Administrative divisions: 10 counties (apskritys, singular – apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence: 11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania’s independence)
National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note – 16 February 1918 is the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system: based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 July 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13 June 2004 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote – Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party – Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, Homeland Union (Conservatives) 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian People’s Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Union of Farmers and New Democracy 6.6%; seats by faction – Labor 39, Homeland Union 25, Social Democrats 20, Liberal and Center Union 18, Social Liberals 11, Union of Farmers and New Democracy Parties 10, Liberal Democrats 10, Electoral Action 2, independents 6
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders: Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS, chairman]; Labor Party [Viktor USPASKICH, chairman]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party [Valentinas MAZURONIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS, chairman]; Lithuanian People’s Union for a Fair Lithuania; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP and the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP; New Democracy and Farmer’s Union or VNDPS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; Social Liberals (New Union) [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS, chairman]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen D. MULL
embassy: 2600 Akmenu 6, Vilnius
mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
Economy Lithuania
Economy – overview: Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has slowly rebounded from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment dropped from 11% in 2003 to 8% in 2004. Growing domestic consumption and increased investment have furthered recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is nearing completion. Overall, more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $45.23 billion (2004 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 6.6% (2004 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $12,500 (2004 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 6.1%
industry: 33.4%
services: 60.5% (2004 est.)
Labor force: 1.63 million (2004 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 30%, services 50% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 34 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 21.9% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget: revenues: $6.542 billion
expenditures: $7.121 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt: 25.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture – products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber
Industrial production growth rate: 12% (2004 est.)
Electricity – production: 17.93 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 16.5%
hydro: 5.7%
nuclear: 77.7%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity – consumption: 10.17 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – exports: 6.8 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – imports: 300 million kWh (2002)
Oil – production: 4,594 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil – consumption: 72,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil – exports: NA
Oil – imports: NA
Natural gas – production: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 2.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 2.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $-1.6 billion (2004 est.)
Exports: $8.88 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports – commodities: mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports – partners: Germany 10.2%, Latvia 10.2%, Russia 9.3%, France 6.3%, UK 5.3%, Sweden 5.1%, Estonia 5%, Poland 4.8%, Netherlands 4.8%, Denmark 4.8%, US 4.7%, Switzerland 4.6% (2004)
Imports: $11.02 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports – commodities: mineral products 21%, machinery and equipment 17%, transport equipment 11%, chemicals 9%, textiles and clothing 9%, metals 5% (2001)
Imports – partners: Russia 23.1%, Germany 16.7%, Poland 7.7%, Netherlands 4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.61 billion (2004 est.)
Debt – external: $10.01 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid – recipient: $228.5 million (1995)
Currency (code): litas (LTL)
Currency code: LTL
Exchange rates: litai per US dollar – 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002), 4 (2001), 4 (2000)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Lithuania
Telephones – main lines in use: 824,200 (2003)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 2,169,900 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code – 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios: 1.9 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 27
note: Lithuania has approximately 27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations (2001)
Televisions: 1.7 million (1997)
Internet country code: .lt
Internet hosts: 67,769 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 32 (2001)
Internet users: 695,700 (2003)
Transportation Lithuania
Railways: total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (2004)
Highways: total: 77,148 km
paved: 69,202 km (including 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,946 km (2002)
Waterways: 600 km (2004)
Pipelines: gas 1,696 km; oil 331 km; refined products 109 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Klaipeda
Merchant marine: total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 296,856 GRT/317,731 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 24, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 12 (Denmark 12)
registered in other countries: 16 (2005)
Airports: 102 (2004 est.)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 28
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.)
Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 74
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 68 (2004 est.)
Military Lithuania
Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, National Defense Volunteer Forces (SKAT)
Military service age and obligation: 19-45 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation – 12 months; 18 years of age for volunteers (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 19-49: 830,368 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 19-49: 590,606 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males: 29,689 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures – dollar figure: $230.8 million (FY01)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Lithuania
Disputes – international: in 2003, the Lithuania-Russia land and maritime boundary treaty was ratified and a transit regime established through Lithuania linking Russia and its Kaliningrad coastal exclave, leaving only improvements to the border demarcation in 2005; by 2004, a third of the Belarus-Lithuania boundary had been demarcated; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil; as a member state that forms part of the EU’s external border, Lithuania must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation.

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CIA World Factsbook;